22 Mayıs 2008 Perşembe

Midterm 2

1-Problem is something that has difficulty and needs to be resolved.

In academic life,there is a concept called problematization which is a set of questions to achieve something(product,idea etc.)

If we look at from science window,problem is the point where one starts from.For a scientific research,first of all,one should define a problem.Then study to solve it.

2-Method is a way or a form to do something,generally a systematic way.

We can say that method is the formul of a problem.In a scientific research,for example, after defining the problem,a set of studies must be done to solve this problem.Here,these studies are called a method.There can be many kinds of sets of studies for a problem-solving means a problem can be solved by more than one method.

Methodology is a system of methods means methodology includes methods that are performed in a particular order.

Here,methodology is like method.Method is a set of studies to solve the problem while metodology is a set of methods to solve problems...If we continue to scientific research example,one can say there is a methodology if and only if s/he uses more than one method in a particular order means after a method there exists another problem,then to solve this problem s/he uses another method,then a problem exists again for example and it continues in such way.Here,all these methods in a particular order called a methodology.

3-Theory is an opinion about something,that can not prove by one who has the opinion but it is thought be true by one.

Theory is generally thought as one step under of a rule.This step is the proof.Because it is not proven,nobody say that is absolutely true(reality).However,everybody accept it is true because a theory is tested with an experiment or an approximation.

There are two fundemantal criterias for theory;which are experimentally verifying and encouranging by many sprands.

Hypothesis is an idea that is not tested by an experiment or an approximation.It can be called as pre-theory because if it is proven it will be called as theory according to scientific research steps.

Paradigm as scientific is an ideal set of practises that form scientific discipline.It can be mixed with scientific method according to this definition;however,scientific method is more general than scientific paradigm.Because scientific paradigm is the ideal set of experiments to solve a problem it is much more specified.

4-Strategy is the total plans to achieve anything.All plans in the period when a study is performed to develop something,form the strategy.From another view point,all ideas of one's to approach to a result-solution of a problem,developing version of a product,etc.-are called strategy of that person.

Plan is one part of a strategy to develop something.In fact,it called as a program or a regularity of a period to approach the new(developed) knowledge.For example,in the steps of a scientific research,after one form a hypothesis,s/he must make some set of plans to test the hypothesis as true or not.

Control is thought as power.Scientific meaning is power to check or restart something.Another meaning is standart condition-in the sets of scientific research,in the experiments set there should be a control group to compare the experiment group(meaning the changes) with the standart conditions-.

5-Model is sometimes a miniature copy or sometimes a one-to-one copy of a product.Altough many people accept this meaning as the first meaning for "model",some people accept the meaning of model as the plan.In scientific uses,model can either be used as the miniature or one-to-one copy of a product or as the plan of a workings of a system,object,concept.

Snowball Effect is a serial events that is happening itself after the first event.In chemistry for example,there are some reactions called continuous reactions.In such reactions,the first reaction is occured by an outer factor,after that the following reactions are occured by themselves.This circumstance is called as snowball effect.

Waterfall Diagram

6-Validation/validity generally has the meaning that check or certificate something as it satisfies a certain criterion.From engineering view point,it is thought as becoming the needs of the customer of a product and the system together.Clearly,to make the rigth product that includes the needs of the customer is called validation.

Significance is called as the importance.For example,the most significant item of a car is without any hesitation the wheel (If there is no wheel in a car,after that time it is not called as car =) ).

Reliability has the meaning that if a product or anything has the ability of doing its main job under all conditions in a rutin time,then it is called as reliability.We can say that the reliability is a bit similar to guarantee according to their meanings.If in the guarantee period,a product lost its realibility,one can give it to the services without any paying.

Relevance/Relevant is called as the suitability/suitable.In scientific operations,the relevance of an action, item, material, etc. is very significant for te future of the research, system, experiment, etc. .If one use irrelevant material for a chemistry experiment for example,the material maybe cause an explosion.

7-Event is called as happening.In science for example,event chain methodology is a network technique analysis that surveys the changing rate of the happenings -events- in a particular time.

Process is the period when methods for something are performed.It is the time that includes all sets of performing a product from beginning of the system.For example,take breath(O2) into alveouls is a process for performing CO2 and H2O.

Life Cycle is a period that includes beginning,developing and finishing(for humans;borning,growing,dying).It includes many processes in it.For example,making the engine of an auto is called as a process,making the wheels is called as a process while from beginning to finishing means go to junk yard is called as life cycle for an auto.

8-Iterative is called as repetitive.If we think on life cycle,iterative means that beginning step will come after finishing step.Recycle is a good example for iterative concept.

Sequential represents some particular periods that are in a following logical order.Again,if we think on life cycle,all steps(beginning-developing-finishing) are sequential.Who can say first step must be finishing or life cycle is such a period that includes finishing-beginning-growing steps that are occured sequentially?Of course,no one =)

9-In a kitsch photo,the photographer should make an good observation such that,s/he can have awarness of the disfigurement.Then s/he will collect datas about what is wrong with his or her view.Finally he or she can abstract the antithetic object from his or her visual such that the photo becomes beautiful at least for photographer..

29 Nisan 2008 Salı


demiray tayfası hatırlayacaktır bu sinir bozucu görüntüyü..

30 Mart 2008 Pazar

Main Branches of Engineering

After the industrial revolution,engineering was developed with its parts called main branches of engineering

Engineering is seperated some sub-disciplines which concern them-selves with differing areas of engineering.The Main Branches are classified(historically) like that:

Aerospace Engineering - Engineers belong this part work in designing aircraft, spacecraft and related topics.

Chemical Engineering - The conversion of sore materials into usable commodities.

Civil Engineering - Engineers belong this part work in design and build of public and private works, such as infrastructure, bridges and buildings.

Electrical Engineering -Engineers belong this part work in designing of electrical systems, such as transformers, as well as electronic goods.

Mechanical Engineering -Engineers belong this part work in design of physical or mechanical systems, such as engines, powertrains, kinematic chains and vibration isolation equipment.

Nowadays engineers can also be classified into 11 types,according to kind of work they do: build,advising,design,development,teaching,planning,production,research,sales,service and test engineers.

Engineering specialized into many parts like agricultural • aerospace • architectural • automotive • biomedical • ceramic • chemical • civil • computer science • electrical • engineering physics • environmental health and sanitary • geological • marine • mechanical • metallurgical and materials • mining • nuclear • ocean • petroleum • systems • textile • and transportation during the last 200 years.

Industrial engineers work to minimize wastes of time, money, materials, energy, and other resources.To doing this they know many things and they belong many parts from 11 areas which are classified according to what engineerd do.Similar fields that industrial engineers are very close to are Operations Research, Management Science, Financial Engineering, Ergonomics, Process Engineering, Value Engineering and Quality Engineering.





What Do Engineers Do?

Engineers are simply problem solvers.Engineers solve the techniquel problems by using theories and principles of science and mathemeatics.They work on the scientific discovery and its applications.Many engineers work in production,testing and maintenance while their original work is design and development.

They oversee production in factories,decide the causes of breakdowns,test manufactured products to keep quality.They also predict the cost and time to finish the projects.Some of them work in management or marketing where an engineering background provide discussing techniqual visions of a product and help in planning its installation or use.

They generally work as teams in which there are some other people who are not engineers like scientists and technicians .In this teams,they (engineers) are responsible from communicating , understanding,planning,creating and testing.





Engineering as a profession

First of all we should know what profession means to think about engineering as a profession.Profession is a occupation in which a specialized knowledge about a subject,science or a field is applied.It is generally applied to vacations that include prolong academic training and a formal qualification.

Engineering is a specialized techniqual occupation especially in nineteenth century after it became more narrowly on applying mathematics and science.

Also if we look at the definiton of engineering we can see that,"engineering is the discipline and profession of appliying scientific knowledge ..." .

We can also classify the engineers as Professional Engineer,Chartered Engineer and Incorporated Engineer.

Briefly,Professional Engineers are the licensed engineers and we can say from here engineering is called a profession tells us it is also a licensed occupation.





Begining of Engineering Education

One of the treaties that were written by the first civil engineerings shows us the beginning of the engineering education and practice in classical times.This treaty is called as Vitruvius' De architectura, written in Rome in the 1st century AC which includes volume work covering building materials,construction methods,hydraluics,measurement and tower planning.

The mediavel Europen engineers like Villard de Honnecourt had a wide knowledge on mathematics,geometry,natural and physical science and draftsmanship.

In Asia,engineering also developed in a similar way like Europe without some differences with more and more sophisticated techniques like construction,hydraulics and metallurgy helping to create advanced civilizations.

Also if we think an education belongs to school,we will see that the first schools of engineering were founded in France,in the middle of the 18th century.





Origins Of Engineering

In ancient times because humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley,lever and wheel engineering concept has existed.

"Engineering" becomes from word engineer which was first used in 1325 when an engine'er(one who operates engine) originally referred to "a builder of military engines".In this case engine is called as a military machine like catapult which was used in war.Engine is even older origin,getting from the Latin "ingenium" (native quality, specifically mental power,a clever creativity)

Later,as design of civilian structures civil engineering became the first non-military engineering.

The first engineer (civil) that we know is with his achievement :

Imhotep,builder of the Step Pyramid at Saqqarah,Egypt probably in about 2550 BC.

Imhotep's successors-Egyptian,Persian,Greek, and Roman- developed civil engineering to exceptional heigths by using arithmetic,geometry,and a bit physical science.




29 Mart 2008 Cumartesi


Frank Bunker Gilbreth (1868-1924) was a bricklayer,a building contractor and also a management engineer.Additionally he gave lessons at the Purdue University.He married with Lillian Evelyn Moller( 1878-1972) who graduated from Unversity of California on 1904 and they were parents of 12 children.

Gilbreths are one of the greatest husband-wife team in science and engineering.They studied on the development of motion early in the 1900s as a management and engineering technique.They originated micromotion study and breakdown of a work into fundamental elements now called therbligs.They studied on these elements by a motion-picture camera and a timing device.This is the method wich was developed by Gilberths and resulted in the publication of "Motion Study" on 1911.The method can be explained basicly that systematically investigated and analyzed the mechanics and timing of specific tasks."Fatigue Study"(1916) and "Applied Motion Study" (1917) are the two books that Gilbreths published after the "Motion Study".

Briefly we can say that Frank Bunker Gilbreth was the first person who applied motion picture photography to the study of surgical operations and also they(Gilbreths) were affected from Taylor's time-motion studies.

They also focused on applying the social sciences to industry,by changing the actions of the worker instead of changing the environment of work.





28 Mart 2008 Cuma

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)

He studied on successful people about psychology.Maslow thought that people have particular needs to become happy and loving.

Maslow created a hierachy of needs with 5 needs and also add “As one desire is satisfied, another pops up in its place.”.

Here is the Maslow's hierachy and explaining of all needs:

Physiological Needs

This includes the most important needs that are the biological necessities such as,oksygen,water,food etc.This is the bottom of the hierachy because a person who does not afford these needs will be die.

Safety Needs

Children feel more unsafe comparing to the adults because when they afraid they feel like that and they can not pass to the next step.From adults sight,they feel unsafe during emergencies or times of disorder.

Love and Belonging Needs

To escape loneliness and alienation people need love and a sense of belonging.

Esteem Needs

People need feel valuable.They need some respect from their self and others.If they do not met this need,they become weak,helpless and worthless.

Self-Actualization Needs

Self actualization is thought by Maslow that a very small group of people reach this level which is called a person's finding their "calling".


Max Weber (1864-1920)

Weber was born in Erfurt in Thuringia, Germany.His parents were so scholarly.In fact,the young Weber and his brother Alfred, who also became a sociologist and economist, grew in this intellectual atmosphere.

Weber is a german political economist and sociologist.He worked firstly at the University of Berlin, and later worked at Freiburg University, University of Heidelberg, University of Vienna and University of Munich.

He is known as the founder of modern sociology and public administration..His studies about politics sociology and educational sociology are known by many people.In adition to these,he also studied sociology of religion and economics.



Henry FAYOL (1841-1925)

He was born on 1841 in Paris.He graduated from Saint Etienne Mineral University when he was 19 and joined Commentary Fourchambault which was coal company.He became ceo on 1888 and the had manage this company until 1918.He wrote a book called "Administration Industrielle et Generale" on 1916.

Management Theory

Henry Fayol thought management as a period and he seperated this to functions.These functions are still accepted.

According to Fayol there are 6 kind of actions in a company which are :

1-Technical Actions

2-Commercial Actions

3-Financial Actions

4-Securtiy Actions

5-Accounting Actions

6-Management Actions

He studied on Management Actions and seperated it to 5 parts which are still accepted are: prevoyance,organising,executive,coordination and control.

And according to Fayol there were 14 principles of management:

1.Depertmant of Labor

2.Authority and Responsibility


4.Unity of Command

5.Unity of Direction

6.Importance of genereal profits than personel


8.Centripetal Management




12.Continuity and Balance


14.In Spirit of Unity (Esprit De Corps)






27 Mart 2008 Perşembe

Henry Ford (1863-1947)

He is the creator of Ford Motor Company which is an automobile producer.

He left his home in 1879 and went to Detroit to learn how to be a machinist.After his education life,he joined Westinghouse Company and worked on motors worked with petrol.He became an engineer in the Edison Illuminating Company on 1881.After years,Ford and Edison who is the most famous inventor all over the world became friends.After he became a chif engineer,he could made Quadricylce on 1896.After this succes,Edison left the company and built another one called Detroit Automobile Company but this was fold on 1901.

On 1903 Ford built Ford Motor Company with 11 financier by 28.000 USD.Modell T which was sold by the company on 1908 gained a lot of fame.On 1918 Modell T was the half of the automobiles used in America.Company had sold 15 million of automobiles which were the same model until 1925.Without any hesitation this success was depend on the moving assembly line which was Ford's idea to lower the price.

Ford is also known that he didn't give permission about syndicate actions in his companies.In fact,he gave many to nazies and Hitler to protect him from syndicates is also said by many people.

Assembly Line

To lower the price,Ford and his team found four principles which were interchangeable parts,continuous flow,division of labor and reducing wasted effort.

Assembly of the Modell T was broken by Ford into 84 distinct steps to divide the labor and briefly "one step one worker" was formulise this principle.We can say that Ford was affected from "Taylor's motion and time study" in this principle.

Against many peoples believes,Ford is not the inventor of assembly line.It is invented by Ransom E. Olds,Ford improved only the idea of Old by installing conveyor belts.

17 Mart 2008 Pazartesi

Mass Production Vision of Ford

In 1907, Henry Ford announced his goal for the Ford Motor Company: to create "a motor car for the great multitude." At that time, automobiles were expensive, custom-made machines. Ford's engineers took the first step towards this goal by designing the Model T, a simple, sturdy car, offering no factory options -- not even a choice of color. The Model T, first produced in 1908, kept the same design until the last one -- number 15,000,000 -- rolled off the line in 1927. From the start, the Model T was less expensive than most other cars, but it was still not attainable for the "multitude." Ford realized he'd need a more efficient way to produce the car in order to lower the price. He and his team looked at other industries and found four principles that would further their goal: interchangeable parts, continuous flow, division of labor, and reducing wasted effort.Using interchangeable parts meant making the individual pieces of the car the same every time. That way any valve would fit any engine, any steering wheel would fit any chassis. The efficiencies to be gained were proven in the assembly of standardized photography equipment pioneered by George Eastman in 1892. This meant improving the machinery and cutting tools used to make the parts. But once the machines were adjusted, a low-skilled laborer could operate them, replacing the skilled craftsperson who formerly made the parts by hand. To improve the flow of the work, it needed to be arranged so that as one task was finished, another began, with minimum time spent in set-up. Ford was inspired by the meat-packing houses of Chicago and a grain mill conveyor belt he had seen. If he brought the work to the workers, they spent less time moving about. He adopting the Chicago meatpackers overhead trolley to auto production by installing the first automatic conveyer belt.Then he divided the labor by breaking the assembly of the Model T into 84 distinct steps. Each worker was trained to do just one of these steps. Ford called in Frederick Winslow Taylor, the creator of "scientific management," to do time and motion studies to determine the exact speed at which the work should proceed and the exact motions workers should use to accomplish their tasks. There by reducing wasted effort.Ford put these principles into play gradually over five years, fine-tuning and testing as he went along. In 1913, they came together in the first moving assembly line ever used for large-scale manufacturing. Ford produced cars at a record-breaking rate. That meant he could lower the price and still make a good profit by selling more cars. Ford had another notion, rather original in its time: the workers were also potential consumers! In 1914, Ford workers' wages were raised to $5 a day -- an excellent wage -- and they soon proved him right by buying their own Model Ts. Ford was called "a traitor to his class" by other industrialists and professionals, but he held firm in believing that well-paid workers would put up with dull work, be loyal, and buy his cars.Ford's manufacturing principles were adopted by countless other industries. The process was so revolutionary that the term "to Fordize" meant to standardize a product and manufacture it by mass means at a price so low that the common man could afford to buy it. Henry Ford went beyond his 1907 goal of making cars affordable for all; he changed the habits of a nation, and shaped its very character.
(Source: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/ford.htm )

16 Mart 2008 Pazar

Frederick Taylor Early Century Management Consultant

The American ideal of corporate efficiency took form in the early 20th century, seeded by reform-minded progressives seeking to improve the lot of the middle classes and their employers. As corporations consolidated at the end of the 19th century, progressives encouraged the spread of professional management to supersede the style that had defined the Robber Baron age.
As corporations pursued national markets, they needed experts in production, distribution and labor. Businesses were now to complex for generalists to run. This need for such expertise led to the advent of the management consultant. The most highly regarded consultant to arise out of this era is Frederick Winslow Taylor. Frederick Taylor's name was synonymous with "scientific management," a revolutionary movement that proposed the reduction of waste through the careful study of work. Peter Drucker has ranked Taylor, along with Darwin and Freud, as one of the seminal thinkers of modern times.
Born in 1856 into a wealthy Philadelphia family, Taylor disappointed his parents by working in a metal products factory, first as a machinist and next as a foreman. Shocked at the factory's inefficiency, and the practice of its skilled workers of purposely working slowly, Taylor proposed solutions that he believed would solve both problems. By studying the time it took each worker to complete a step, and by rearranging equipment, Taylor believed he could discover what an average worker could produce in optimum conditions. The promise of higher wages, he figured, would create added incentive for workers to exceed this "average" level. Taylor's time-and-motion studies offered a path away from the industrial wars of a century ago. Now what was needed was a way to apportion the wealth created by manufacturing enterprises. Taylor's answer sidestepped the class struggle and interest-group politics.
Generally creating enemies wherever he worked, and willing to bend the facts to suit his theories, Taylor's methods paid off, when on the eve of World War I, "Taylorism" became the first big management fad. An extreme version of Taylor's mind-set found its way into the operation of Nazi death camps and communist totalitarianism. The Taylor method prescribed a clockwork world of tasks timed to the hundredth of a minute, of standardized factories, machines, women and men. Naturally, ordinary workers resented having to work faster then they thought was healthy or fair.
It came to be revealed, that in case after case, Taylor and his adherents didn't actually use their time studies as the sole basis for setting normative output. Acknowledging that workers could not sustain peak level performances all day long, they used a margin of error or fudge factor of as much as a third to set a more realistic level. This of course, struck at the credibility that Taylor's system was based on scientific laws.
Taylor passed on in the year 1915.

(Source: The Wall Street Journal Bookshelf, June 13, 1997 pg. A17)
( http://www.cftech.com/BrainBank/TRIVIABITS/FredWTaylor.html )

14 Mart 2008 Cuma

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)

He was an American mechanical engineer and industrial management expert.He has got many researches to improve industrial efficiency.

When he was young he wants to go to Harward University Law Department but because of some medical problems he could not go to university...

He became an engineer on 1894 in the Midvale Company which he joined on 1878 as a worker.After this period,he became an administor again at the Midvale Company and he applied his ideas which were about improve the industrial efficiency and he contributed to development of the company.After very short time he gained a very important fame by his book called "Shop Managament".He thought that factory management and industrial management mechanism in his living period were exactly amauture and primitive.For magament mechanisms he tought that extra kinds of disciplines should be applied and workers should work together.He called as the father of industrial engineering by many experts.By the article called "The Principles of Scientific Management" which was writen on 1911 by Taylor he became more famous.All his ideas are called Taylorism.

Some parts of Taylorism are;

1-Managers and Workers

Taylor declared in his article The Principles of Scientific Management that divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks..

Some of his own sentences about this part are :

"It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone." (Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, cited by Montgomery 1989:229, italics with Taylor)

"'I can say, without the slightest hesitation,' Taylor told a congressional committee, 'that the science of handling pig-iron is so great that the man who is ... physically able to handle pig-iron and is sufficiently phlegmatic and stupid to choose this for his occupation is rarely able to comprehend the science of handling pig-iron." (Montgomery 1989:251)

In his opinion,there are four principles of scientific management:

1-The development of true science

2-The scientifc selection of the worker
3-The scientific development and education of the worker

4-Confidentially and friendly cooperation between the management and the workerss

2-Management Theory

Taylor thought that by analysing work, the "One Best Way" to do it would be found. He is most remembered for developing the time and motion study. He would break a job into its component parts and measure each to the hundredth of a minute.

And I really want to be the Taylor because he opened an age for industrial engineering(scientific management) and showed a lot of topics that can be studied and developed for people after him.In fact,he inspire many people...And shortly he is my favorite ;)






24 Şubat 2008 Pazar